Jarawa tribe is considered as descendants of the Jangil tribe, which is now extinct. Many assume the ancestors of the Jarawas were part of the initial flourishing human migrations out of Africa. They are regarded as a scheduled tribe, which implies they carry particularly minor status in this Hindu nation. The Jarawa community has always had a tremendous appreciation for their environment. Presently, nearly 400 fellows of the migratory Jarawa tribe live in groups of 40-50 individuals.
They hunt pig, turtle, and fish with bows and arrows in the coral-fringed reefs for crabs and fish, comprising striped catfish-eel and the toothed pony fish. They further collect fruits, wild roots, tubers, and honey. The bows are prepared from the chosen wood, which does not grow throughout the Jarawa region. The Jarawa frequently have to roam lengthy distances to Baratang Island to obtain it. Both Jarawa men and women gather wild honey from lofty trees. During the honey gathering, the units of the group will sing melodies to convey their happiness. The honey-collector will bite the sap of leaves of a bee-repellant plant, such as Ooyekwalin, which they then sprinkle with their mouths at the bees to restrain them away. Once the bees have moved the Jarawa can chop the bee's nest, which they will lay in a wooden bucket on their back. The Jarawa always bathe after eating honey.
Where are they Located?
The tribe is settled on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands southeast of India in the Indian Ocean. They live in the west part of south Andamans and Middle Andamans. It contains three social territorial units, Northern group, central and Southern Group. The northern group dwells in the Kadamtala adjacent regions named 'Tanmad', the southern group inhabits tirur region named 'Boiab' and the central group inhabits the RK Nallah neighboring regions along the Andaman Truck Road region named 'Thidong'.
What Are Their Lives Like?
This is the sole tribe that has stayed hunters and gatherers in the authentic perception. They do not rely on government assistance; rather they fish in the sea or hunt in the forest. The Indian ministry devotes a reserve of 1,028 square kilometers of rich evergreen jungles to the community. Though, it has become smaller as more of their territory has been utilized for paths and mainland migrants. The Andaman Trunk Road moves through their reserve; it's a major threat to this community. It has forced the tribe's people to one side of the island, and constant stealing of their game and honey by city dwellers often leaves them without basic provisions. The tribe has to go deeper into the jungle to escape from outside dangers.
Some hundred thousand Indian migrants presently inhabit the islands, outnumbering the Jarawa community. The Jarawa population is falling, meaning that their culture is disappearing. Since they have extensively rejected interactions with foreigners, many details of their culture and rituals are incorrectly comprehended. Contact with foreign individuals has resulted in diseases they cannot fight, such as measles. In 1999 measles resulted in the death of approximately 10% of their population. Few of them presently suffer from alcoholism, diabetes, obesity, and depression.
What problems do the Jarawa face?
The community faces several threats. The path that cuts through their region carries thousands of foreigners, including travellers, into their territory. The travellers treat the people of the tribe like animals in a zoo. Foreigners, both regional migrants, and global poachers infiltrate their abundant forest reserve to extort the game the tribe requires to survive. They persist vulnerable to external infections to which they have slight or no immunity. In 1999 and 2006, the community endured cases of measles a disease that has annihilated several tribes worldwide coming after contact with foreigners. A pandemic could destroy the tribe. The women have been sexually exploited by poachers, migrants, bus drivers, and others.
Encroachments into their region are endangering their very existence. External interaction reveals them to unique infections for which they appear to possess no immunity. Poachers are told to steal their game as well. Sexual Abuse of the tribeswomen has also been reported. Travellers have stood a major danger to the Jarawas. Indigenous tribes are our legacy to be respected and it stays our responsibility to support them maintain themselves in environments they have forever resided in and not turn them into subjects of traveller curiosity.
Culture of the Tribe
The Jarawas name their house or accommodation as chadda. The people of both genders stay fully naked. However, they wear ornaments. A bark thick chest cover called 'Tohe' is wielded by the adult male when they go out for hunting. The different ornaments worn by them are headbands, necklaces, armlets, and waistbands. These are primarily prepared of palm leaves and shells. With the raised contact with the foreigners, the tribe has started to wear cloth articles which they name kangaroo. The Jarawa of both genders decorates their body and face with clay. Their folk music revolves around their concrete culture and hunting, fishing, and gathering recreations.
'Towa' is a greatly famous tool among the community which they wield in chopping pork in pieces. It has a shape of an arrow with no wand but possesses a broad breadth of 4-6 inches. They hold Towa in their waist guard known as 'the in the tribes Langauge. Jarawa Language The sun (they), moon (tape), sky (page), stars (chile), and cloud (exhibit) possess their considerable role in the communities' beliefs and mythologies. The full moon is named 'utthutaape' and the small moon is named 'pony tapped. The high tide is named 'chapter while the low tide is named 'chigia'
The Jarawas are healthy, with smooth skin, thick curly hair, tall and sturdy hands, and legs, and strong bones. They are physically suitable for hunting, fishing. The current people of the community bear a huge amount in the population as a reproductive healthy population of teenagers and young people. Marriage commonly happens between adolescents. A widow/widower can marry again in the community itself. Still, the people are rigidly monogamous, successive marriages are traditional. The youngsters after six or seven years do not share the sleeping area with their parents but stay with other youngsters and move from one location to another independently till they get married.